ESPON 2013 Database Dictionary of Spatial Units

ESPON M4D

Revision History
Revision 02014-12-19 17:34:27

Abstract

This document proposes a list of the available nomenclatures integrated (or to be integrated) into the ESPON Database. The following specification may be useful for ESPON Projects when sending their key indicators in the relevant nomenclatures that are supported by the ESPON Database.


Table of Contents

Introduction
1. Regional Nomenclatures
1.1. NUTS - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics
1.1.1. ESPON NUTS Version 1999
1.1.2. ESPON NUTS Version 2003
1.1.3. ESPON NUTS Version 2006
1.1.4. ESPON NUTS Version 2010
1.2. NUTS 2-3 2006
1.3. SNUTS - Similar to Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics
2. Cities
2.1. Cities - Introduction
2.2. Morphological objects
2.2.1. UMZ (Urban Morphological Zones)
2.2.2. MUA (Morphologic Urban Areas)
2.2.3. Comparison between UMZ and MUA
2.3. Funtional objects
2.3.1. FUA_Igeat
2.3.2. LUZ harmonized
2.3.3. Comparison between FUA_Igeat and LUZ harmonized
2.4. Other objects
2.4.1. MetroRegions
3. World nomenclatures
3.1. WUTS - World Unified Territorial System
3.1.1. Source reference and methodology
3.1.1.1. WUTS1 - The World in 3 global regions
3.1.1.2. WUTS2 - The World in 7 macro regions
3.1.1.3. WUTS3 - The World in 17 meso regions
3.1.1.4. WUTS4 - The ESPON space and its surrounding areas in 12 Micro Regions
3.1.1.5. Methodological notes for some country aggregation
3.1.2. WUTS Maps
3.1.3. The Euromed study area
3.1.4. Download the complete WUTS Nomenclature
4. Concluding remarks
A. References
B. About

List of Figures

1. Nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Portal
2. Nomenclatures queryable from the Search Interface of the ESPON Database
3. How to declare a nomenclature in the ESPON Metadata sheets?
1.1. NUTS Nomenclatures history
1.2. ESPON NUTS division 1999 at levels 1, 2 and 3.
1.3. ESPON NUTS division 2003 at levels 1, 2 and 3.
1.4. ESPON NUTS division 2006 at levels 1, 2 and 3.
1.5. ESPON NUTS division 2010 at levels 1, 2 and 3.
2.1. Different delineations of Wien (Austria) according to 5 european databases
2.2. Two different approaches of European urban DB construction: bottom-up and top-down
2.3. Main characteristics of the four urban databases integrated into the ESPON Database
2.4. Urban Database, geometries and attributes
2.5. Comparison of specifications for three morphological urban areas (urban cores)
2.6. UMZ Study Area Coverage Map
2.7. MUA Study Area Coverage Map
2.8. Comparison between the 50 most populated MUA and the corresponding UMZ
2.9. Comparison of specifications for two functional approaches of cities
2.10. FUA_Igeat delineations (2012)
2.11. LUZ harmonized delineations (2012)
2.12. Comparison between the 50 most populated FUA_Igeat and corresponding LUZ harmonized
2.13. MetroRegionsdelineations (2012)
3.1. WUTS Classification
4.1. Good practices for managing ESPON Nomenclatures within a project

List of Tables

1.1.

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 1999 structured by country

1.2.

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 2003 structured by country

1.3.

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 2006 structured by country

1.4.

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 2010 structured by country

1.5. Update of Unit Codes for Croatia in NUTS 2010 Nomenclature
3.1.

Aggregations in WUTS Nomenclature

Introduction

Abstract

Some words regarding the importance of the nomenclatures for the ESPON Database.

One of the milestones of the M4D Project is to extend the support of different geographical objects in the ESPON Database. The ESPON M4D teams have worked intensively on that topic and it is now possible (or soon) to upload and/or query through the Search Interface both regional data (NUTS, SNUTS), data related to cities (UMZ, FUA, MUA) or country data (WUTS). And this for different study areas (EU28, ESPON Area, ESPON Area and Candidate Countries, European neighbourhood and World). These nomenclatures in term of scale or geographical objects comply with the heterogeneity of the ESPON Production.

Figure 1. Nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Portal

Nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Portal

This figure shows the nomenclatures integrated or to be integrated into the ESPON Database. These nomenclatures are divided in three categories: regional nomenclatures (NUTS and SNUTS), nomenclatures related to cities (UMZ, MUA, FUA, MetroRegions) and World nomenclatures (WUTS and UNEP). The Integrated? column shows the integration status of the nomenclatures (June 2013 version of the ESPON Database):

Nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Portal Nomenclatures integrated in the Search Interface. It is possible to query these nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Search Interface. For the ESPON TPGs, it is also possible to deliver key indicators in these nomenclatures.

Nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Portal Nomenclatures to be integrated later in the Search Interface. At the moment, the M4D project is just waiting for the validation of these nomenclatures by the ESPON ITAN Project (SNUTS nomenclature) and the official delivery of the LUZ harmonized by Eurostat to proceed the integration into the Search Interface. It means that ESPON TPGs will have in a short term the possibility to deliver key indicators in these nomenclatures.

Nomenclatures in the ESPON Database Portal Nomenclatures only available under the Resource part of the ESPON Database Portal. These nomenclatures have been produced by ESPON Projects and will not be integrated in the Search Interface of the ESPON Database Portal. The WUTS nomenclature is outdated (split of Serbia and Montegro; split of North and South Sudan) and the methodology used to create WUTS units could be improved (according to their authors). The MetroRegions nomenclature is very linked to the aim of the project which has created this nomenclature (ESPON SGPTD). Considering that this urban nomenclature is based on NUTS3 units, the M4D project consider that the integration of this information will duplicate the content of the ESPON Database available in the NUTS nomenclature. However, this documentation provides all the information related to these nomenclatures. And we remind that it is possible to download the indicators linked to these nomenclatures under the resource part of the ESPON Database Portal.


For the nomenclatures integrated into the Search Interface of the ESPON Database Portal (http://database.espon.eu/db2/search), it is possible to query the data through the filter Where? (cf figure). First, the user has to define the study area she/he is looking for (by default, the "ESPON Area" is selected). Then, she/he can select the nomenclatures (regional data, city etc.) and some of their parameters (version, level).

Figure 2. Nomenclatures queryable from the Search Interface of the ESPON Database

Nomenclatures queryable from the Search Interface of the ESPON Database

To query a specific nomenclature, it is necessary to open the filter Where? (screenshot of the ESPON Database Search Interface in June 2013)


From the upload side, the possibility made to make such innovative queries described above and the necessity to comply with the INSPIRE directive implies necessarily to define some "standards" to declare it correctly in the ESPON Metadata. When delivering Key Indicator datasets, ESPON TPGs have to provide their datasets with two elements filed (figure below):

  • Spatial binding box (dataset sheet): the geographical extent of the layer must be filed (latitiude and longitude min/max) and the nomenclature name, version(s) and level(s) contained in the dataset.

  • The first three columns in the data sheet: Each data file must systemically begin with the unit code, the object type (concatenation of the nomenclature name and the level) and the version of the nomenclature belonging of each territorial unit.

Figure 3. How to declare a nomenclature in the ESPON Metadata sheets?

How to declare a nomenclature in the ESPON Metadata sheets?

This screenshot shows an example of a Key Indicator dataset with the Spatial Binding information and the identification elements of the territorial units. In this dataset, data is given for a list of territorial units from the NUTS nomenclature version 2006 at levels 0, 1, 2 and 3.


TPG must reference the nomenclatures already integrated into the ESPON Database. This document aims at proposing a quick overview of the territorial units supported by the the different nomenclatures versions which are currently integrated into the ESPON Database.

Please find in Chapter 1 the list of currently supported nomenclatures versions. Each of the versions is given as a spreadsheet xls file providing:

  • About sheet: provides information about the originator of the nomenclature description and some details on its use.

  • Version sheet: gives general information about the nomenclature described by the package.

  • Units sheet: gives the full and exhaustive list of territorial/statistical units codes composing the nomenclature.

  • Names sheet: contains the list of the names of all statistical units referenced in the units sheet. This sheet is necessary because each statistical unit can have more that one name (official or inofficial) in more than one language.

  • Hierarchy sheet: describes the hierarchy of statistical units inside the nomenclature.

  • Changes sheet: tracks the changes that characterize the new version as compared with the previous one.

  • Equivalence sheet: is optional and specifies the units of the nomenclature that have equivalences in other nomenclatures supported by the Database. These links with other nomenclatures are used to make automatic conversions of statistical data between nomenclatures.

  • Derivations sheet: contains information about the units of other nomenclatures that have been used to create a new nomenclature. This file can exist only for derived nomenclatures (produced using statistical units of other nomenclatures) and is optional. Establishing links with original units will allow the application to convert data between related nomenclatures.

[Note]

When a TPG is beginning its project, we stronlgy advice to copy/paste all codes of the territorial units contained in the sheet "hierarchy" to be sure to forget no codes in the data sheet.

[Note]

When reading the PDF version of this document, the links to nomenclatures xls files reference the files located in the directory ../resources/ (relative path to the current document directory).

These elements of context being developed, the next parts of this document describes in more details each nomenclature integrated in the ESPON Database: contact person, source reference (Where does the nomenclature come from?) and sometimes (e.g. cities) some elements of methodology explaining how the nomenclature has been created. And this for the NUTS nomenclature and the cities.

Chapter 1. Regional Nomenclatures

1.1. NUTS - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics

The NUTS is the official division of the EU for regional statistics.

At the beginning of the 1970s, Eurostat set up the NUTS classification as a single, coherent system for dividing up the EU's territory in order to produce regional statistics for the Community. For around thirty years, implementation and updating of the NUTS classification was managed under a series of "gentlemen's agreements" between the Member States and Eurostat.

Work on the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003, to give NUTS a legal status started in spring 2000. This was adopted in May 2003 and entered into force in July 2003.

The regulation also specifies stability of the classification for at least three years. Stability makes sure that data refers to the same regional unit for a certain period of time. This is crucial for statistics, in particular for time-series.

However, sometimes national interests require changing the regional breakdown of a country. When this happens the county concerned informs the European Commission about the changes. The Commission in turn amends the classification at the end of period of stability according the rules of the NUTS Regulation ([3]).

Figure 1.1. NUTS Nomenclatures history

NUTS Nomenclatures history

This figures shows the history of the NUTS nomenclatures (Source: Eurostat).


All the "official" versions of the NUTS nomenclatures are supported by the ESPON Database (versions 2003, 2006, 2010). On top of that, the NUTS 1999 version has been also integrated. In that order, it is possible to query both the datasets produced within the ESPON 2006 Program (datasets available in the NUTS 1999 and the NUTS 2003 version) and the ESPON 2013 Program (datasets available in the NUTS 2006 and 2010 versions).

The NUTS nomenclatures available under the ESPON Database Portal are based on the following reference documents produced by the European Commission:

  • NUTS 1999 Nomenclature (Regions - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics NUTS May 1999): The NUTS 1999 nomenclature valid from 1998 onwards subdivides the economic territory of the European Union 15 into 78 regions at NUTS 1 level, 210 regions at NUTS 2 level and 1093 regions at NUTS 3 level. This version of the NUTS nomenclature has no legal value. The reference document is available here:[4]

  • NUTS 2003 Nomenclature (Regions - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - NUTS - 2003/EU25): This document presents the NUTS nomenclature 2003, which subdivides the territory of the European Union after the enlargement (EU25, without Romania and Bulgaria) into 89 regions at NUTS level 1, 254 at NUTS level 2 and 1 214 at NUTS level 3. The reference document is available here:[5]

  • NUTS 2006 Nomenclature (Regions - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics NUTS 2006/EU27): This document presents the NUTS nomenclature 2006, which subdivides the territory of the European Union after the enlargement to Romania and Bulgaria (EU27) into 97 regions at NUTS level 1, 271 at NUTS level 2 and 1 303 at NUTS level 3. The reference document is available here: [6]

  • NUTS 2010 Nomenclature (COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 31/2011 of 17 January 2011): This document presents the NUTS nomenclature 2010, which subdivides the territory of the European Union at regional level since the 1st January 2012. It includes 122 regions at NUTS level 1, 296 at NUTS level 2, 1321 at NUTS level 3. The reference document is available here: [7]

  • EFTA+CC 2001 Nomenclature (Statistical regions in the EFTA countries and the candidate countries, 2001): In 2001 and in order to achieve common definitions, Eurostat and the National Statistical Institutes of the candidate countries (CC) and countries from the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) have agreed that the regional levels contained in this document are to be used by the European Commission for statistical purposes whenever possible. This document proposes level 1, 2 and 3 regions in the situation observed in 2001 for the 10 CC countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia) and the 4 EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). The reference document is available here: [8]

  • EFTA+CC 2008 Nomenclature (Statistical regions for the EFTA countries and the Candidate countries 2008): This documentation proposes level 1, 2 and 3 regions in the situation observed in 2008 (updated in 2010) for the 3 Candidate Countries (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey) and the 4 EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). The reference documentation is available here: [9]

The heterogeneity (official/non official) and the successive versions of the NUTS nomenclatures (1999, 2003, 2006, 2010) was a major issue to solve in the M4D Project. Indeed, the ESPON Program is characterized by a couple of specificities, which has necessarily an impact on the definition of the "ESPON" NUTS nomenclatures:

  • ESPON Projects have produced datasets from the NUTS 1999 to the NUTS 2010 version: to summarize, the ESPON 2006 Program has provided datasets in the NUTS 1999 and the NUTS 2003 versions; the ESPON 2013 Program in the NUTS 2006 and the NUTS 2010 versions. All the key indicators produced by the ESPON Projects of the two programming periods must be available under the Search interface of the ESPON Database.

  • The ESPON Program takes care of the current political situation in the European Union: in other terms, it makes no sense to integrate territorial units for the EU15 only in the NUTS 1999 version since the European Union is constituted by 28 Member States in July 2013.

  • The study area of the ESPON Program for regional analysis is EU28+4 (EFTA Countries), plus possibly Candidate Countries: it implies necessarily to combine in the ESPON Dataset the NUTS nomenclature, which is official and regional nomenclatures coming from gentlemen agreement for EFTA and Candidate Countries.

For all these reasons, the regional nomenclatures proposed by the ESPON Database Portal at regional level combines "official" and "non-official" regional nomenclatures. The sections below propose for each version of the regional nomenclatures contained in the database:

  • A table structured by country covering the ESPON Area and the Candidate Countries. It explains for each NUTS version what is the reference document displaying the territorial units in the nomenclature.

  • A map displaying the boundaries and the codes at NUTS3 level

  • A file in download with all information related to the nomenclature (the structuration of this file is described in introduction)

  • A short description of the main changes between the different ESPON NUTS versions

The contact persons concerning the building of the ESPON NUTS nomenclature are Nicolas Lambert, UMS RIATE () and Ronan Ysebaert ().

1.1.1. ESPON NUTS Version 1999

The following spreadsheet proposes the complete description of the extended ESPON NUTS 1999 classification: nomenclature.xls. See also [4].

This section proposes an overview ot this nomenclature definition: Table 1.1 details the source reference structured by country, the maps in Figure 1.2 show the meshes of this nomenclature version for levels 1, 2 and 3.

Table 1.1. 

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 1999 structured by country

Country Reference document Study area of reference
AT - Austria [4] EU28
BE - Belgium [4] EU28
BG - Bulgaria [8] EU28
CH - Switzerland [8] EU28+4
CY - Cyprus [5] EU28
CZ - Czech Republic [8] EU28
DE - Germany [4] EU28
DK - Denmark [4] EU28
EE - Estonia [8] EU28
EL - Greece [4] EU28
ES - Spain [4] EU28
FI - Finland [4] EU28
FR - France [4] EU28
HR - Croatia [9] EU28
HU - Hungary [8] EU28
IE - Ireland [4] EU28
IS - Iceland [8] EU28+4+CC
IT - Italy [4] EU28
LI - Liechtenstein [8] EU28+4
LT - Lithuania [8] EU28
LU - Luxembourg [4] EU28
LV - Latvia [8] EU28
ME - Montenegro [9] EU28+4+CC
MK - Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia [9] EU28+4+CC
MT - Malta [5] EU28
NL - Netherlands [4] EU28
NO - Norway [8] EU28+4
PL - Poland [8] EU28
PT - Portugal [4] EU28
RO - Romania [8] EU28
SE - Sweden [4] EU28
Sl - Slovenia [8] EU28
SK - Slovakia [8] EU28
TR - Turkey [9] EU28+4+CC
UK - United Kingdom [4] EU28

Figure 1.2. ESPON NUTS division 1999 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

ESPON NUTS division 1999 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

An extract of codes has been put on the layer in order to have a global overivew of the differences with the other NUTS versions.


1.1.2. ESPON NUTS Version 2003

The following spreadsheet contains the complete description of the extended ESPON NUTS 2003 classification: nomenclature.xls.

This section proposes an overview ot this nomenclature definition: Table 1.2 details the source reference structured by country, the maps in Figure 1.3 show the meshes for levels 1, 2 and 3.

Please find below a list of the main changes compared to the ESPON NUTS 1999 Version. The complete list of changes is available in the sheet entitled changes of the document nomenclature.xls..

  • Creation of Extra-Regio for each country (code=ATZZZ for instance).

  • Creation of a hierarchical system of code for each country (at NUTS 3 level, "LT" become "LT000").

  • BE: Code change.

  • ES: Code change.

  • DE3/DE4/DE9: Unit merge or split.

  • IT: Code change, merge and split.

  • PT: Code change, merge and split.

  • FI: Code change, merge and split.

  • PL: Code change, merge and split.

  • LV: Code change, merge and split.

  • BG: Code change, merge and split.

Table 1.2. 

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 2003 structured by country

Country Reference document Study area of reference
AT - Austria [5] EU28
BE - Belgium [5] EU28
BG - Bulgaria [5] EU28
CH - Switzerland [8] EU28+4
CY - Cyprus [5] EU28
CZ - Czech Republic [5] EU28
DE - Germany [5] EU28
DK - Denmark [5] EU28
EE - Estonia [5] EU28
EL - Greece [5] EU28
ES - Spain [5] EU28
FI - Finland [5] EU28
FR - France [5] EU28
HR - Croatia [9] EU28
HU - Hungary [5] EU28
IE - Ireland [5] EU28
IS - Iceland [8] EU28+4+CC
IT - Italy [5] EU28
LI - Liechtenstein [8] EU28+4
LT - Lithuania [5] EU28
LU - Luxembourg [5] EU28
LV - Latvia [5] EU28
ME - Montenegro [9] EU28+4+CC
MK - Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia [9] EU28+4+CC
MT - Malta [5] EU28
NL - Netherlands [5] EU28
NO - Norway [8] EU28+4
PL - Poland [5] EU28
PT - Portugal [5] EU28
RO - Romania [5] EU28
SE - Sweden [5] EU28
Sl - Slovenia [5] EU28
SK - Slovakia [5] EU28
TR - Turkey [9] EU28+4+CC
UK - United Kingdom [5] EU28

Figure 1.3. ESPON NUTS division 2003 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

ESPON NUTS division 2003 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

An extract of codes has been put on the layer in order to have a global overivew of the differences with the other NUTS versions.


1.1.3. ESPON NUTS Version 2006

The following spreadsheet document contains the complete description of the extended ESPON NUTS 2006 classification: nomenclature.xls.

This section proposes an overview ot this nomenclature definition: Table 1.3 details the source reference structured by country, the maps in Figure 1.4 show the meshes for levels 1, 2 and 3.

Below are listed the main changes with the previous version (ESPON NUTS 2003 Nomenclature). For a complete list of changes, please consult the sheet entitled changes in the document nomenclature.xls.

  • BE333: Split.

  • BG: Code change, merge and split.

  • CZ06: Boundary shift.

  • DK: Code change and split.

  • DEE: Merge of NUTS3 regions.

  • ES530,ES701 and ES702: Split.

  • ITG2: Split of NUTS3 regions.

  • NL222 and NL223: Boundary shift.

  • PL: Code change and split.

  • RO: Code change.

  • Sl: Code change at NUTS3 level.

  • FI191 and FI192: Boundary shift.

  • SE: Code change and boundary shift for SE021 and SE025.

  • UKM1 and UKM4: Boundary shift.

  • IS: Split at NUTS3 level.

Table 1.3. 

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 2006 structured by country

Country Reference document Study area of reference
AT - Austria [6] EU28
BE - Belgium [6] EU28
BG - Bulgaria [6] EU28
CH - Switzerland [9] EU28+4
CY - Cyprus [6] EU28
CZ - Czech Republic [6] EU28
DE - Germany [6] EU28
DK - Denmark [6] EU28
EE - Estonia [6] EU28
EL - Greece [6] EU28
ES - Spain [6] EU28
FI - Finland [6] EU28
FR - France [6] EU28
HR - Croatia [9] EU28
HU - Hungary [6] EU28
IE - Ireland [6] EU28
IS - Iceland [9] EU28+4+CC
IT - Italy [6] EU28
LI - Liechtenstein [9] EU28+4
LT - Lithuania [6] EU28
LU - Luxembourg [6] EU28
LV - Latvia [6] EU28
ME - Montenegro [9] EU28+4+CC
MK - Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia [9] EU28+4+CC
MT - Malta [6] EU28
NL - Netherlands [6] EU28
NO - Norway [9] EU28+4
PL - Poland [6] EU28
PT - Portugal [6] EU28
RO - Romania [6] EU28
SE - Sweden [6] EU28
Sl - Slovenia [6] EU28
SK - Slovakia [6] EU28
TR - Turkey [9] EU28+4+CC
UK - United Kingdom [6] EU28

Figure 1.4. ESPON NUTS division 2006 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

ESPON NUTS division 2006 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

An extract of codes has been put on the layer in order to have a global overivew of the differences with the other NUTS versions.


1.1.4. ESPON NUTS Version 2010

The following spreadsheet contains the complete description of the extended ESPON NUTS 2010 classification: nomenclature.xls.

This section proposes an overview ot this nomenclature definition: Table 1.4 details the source reference structured by country, the maps in Figure 1.5 show the meshes for levels 1, 2 and 3.

Below are listed the main changes with the previous version (ESPON NUTS 2006 Nomenclature). For a complete list of changes, please consult the sheet entitled changes in the document nomenclature.xls.

  • DE4, DED, DEA2: Code change and merge.

  • EL: Code change.

  • ITD, ITE, ITF, ITC4: Code change and boundary shift.

  • NL33: Boundary shift.

  • FI13, FI18, FI1A: Merge of units at NUTS3 level and code change.

  • UKD2, UKD5, UKE43, UKF23, UKG34, UKG35, UKH22: Code change and boundary shift.

Table 1.4. 

Source reference for the ESPON NUTS Version 2010 structured by country

Country Reference document Study area of reference
AT - Austria [7] EU28
BE - Belgium [7] EU28
BG - Bulgaria [7] EU28
CH - Switzerland [9] EU28+4
CY - Cyprus [7] EU28
CZ - Czech Republic [7] EU28
DE - Germany [7] EU28
DK - Denmark [7] EU28
EE - Estonia [7] EU28
EL - Greece [7] EU28
ES - Spain [7] EU28
FI - Finland [7] EU28
FR - France [7] EU28
HR - Croatia [10] EU28
HU - Hungary [7] EU28
IE - Ireland [7] EU28
IS - Iceland [9] EU28+4+CC
IT - Italy [7] EU28
LI - Liechtenstein [9] EU28+4
LT - Lithuania [7] EU28
LU - Luxembourg [7] EU28
LV - Latvia [7] EU28
ME - Montenegro [9] EU28+4+CC
MK - Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia [9] EU28+4+CC
MT - Malta [7] EU28
NL - Netherlands [7] EU28
NO - Norway [9] EU28+4
PL - Poland [7] EU28
PT - Portugal [7] EU28
RO - Romania [7] EU28
SE - Sweden [7] EU28
Sl - Slovenia [7] EU28
SK - Slovakia [7] EU28
TR - Turkey [9] EU28+4+CC
UK - United Kingdom [7] EU28

Figure 1.5. ESPON NUTS division 2010 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

ESPON NUTS division 2010 at levels 1, 2 and 3.

An extract of codes has been put on the layer in order to have a global overivew of the differences with the other NUTS versions.

[Warning]

In July 2014, some codes of the spatial units in Croatia have been updated in this Nomenclature NUTS 2010. The codes referenced in [9] as HR01 and HR02 become HR04 in the updated version. More precisely, the Table 1.5 describe the changes.

Table 1.5. Update of Unit Codes for Croatia in NUTS 2010 Nomenclature
Previous version Updated version (July 2014)
unit code unit name unit code unit name
HR01Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska
HR02Središnja i Istočna (Panonska) Hrvatska
HR04Kontinentalna Hrvatska
HR011Grad ZagrebHR041Grad Zagreb
HR012Zagrebačka županijaHR042Zagrebačka županija
HR013Krapinsko-zagorska županijaHR043Krapinsko-zagorska županija
HR014Varaždinska županijaHR044Varaždinska županija
HR015Koprivničko-križevačka županijaHR045Koprivničko-križevačka županija
HR016Međimurska županijaHR046Međimurska županija
HR021Bjelovarsko-bilogorska županijaHR047Bjelovarsko-bilogorska županija
HR022Virovitičko-podravska županijaHR048Virovitičko-podravska županija
HR023Požeško-slavonska županijaHR049Požeško-slavonska županija
HR024Brodsko-posavska županijaHR04ABrodsko-posavska županija
HR025Osječko-baranjska županijaHR04BOsječko-baranjska županija
HR026Vukovarsko-srijemska županijaHR04CVukovarsko-srijemska županija
HR027Karlovačka županijaHR04DKarlovačka županija
HR028Sisačko-moslavačka županijaHR04ESisačko-moslavačka županija


1.2. NUTS 2-3 2006

[Caution]

Work in progres

The complete description of this nomenclature is available in the following spreadsheet document: nomenclature.xls.

1.3. SNUTS - Similar to Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics

[Caution]

Work in progress

A regional nomenclature is under construction thanks to the ESPON Itan Project for the European Neighborhood (url:http://www.espon.eu/main/Menu_Projects/Menu_AppliedResearch/itan.html). This dictionary of spatial units will be enriched as soon as this project.

Chapter 2. Cities

2.1. Cities - Introduction

Cities are complex objects and can be approached through different definitions and delineations. Several urban databases are thus currently available at European scale. As illustrated in the Figure 2.1, there is not one but at least 5 delineations of a city, according to European databases. These cities are defined either as urban agglomerations (based on continuous built-up areas, like Urban Morphological zones from EEA or Morphological Urban Areas from IGEAT) or as functional urban areas (based on commuting patterns around urban cores, like Functional Urban areas from IGEAT or Larger Urban Zones from OECD and European commission).

Figure 2.1. Different delineations of Wien (Austria) according to 5 european databases

Different delineations of Wien (Austria) according to 5 european databases

source: A. Pavard, ESPON 2012


This diversity of delineations is not a problem in itself, since it highlights different approaches of urban facts, which can be relevant for different proposes. But it can also be a source of confusion: in the case of Wien, for instance, the comparison of the results obtained from those databases reveals very important differences, up to 25% as regards to the population of Wien functional area (2,1 millions inhabitants for LUZ_2004 2,5 for LUZ harmonized and)2,8 for FUA_IGEAT). That is why it is very important to understand the way these bases have been constructed (construction rules, sources, etc) and to elaborate a common approach, in order to compare the databases from both conceptual and technical points.

The following sections give the main keys to help the ESPON users choosing the most appropriate DB regarding their scientific targets. Four main databases were selected to be integrated into the ESPON database, in order to provide reliable and comparative information about cities as shown in Figure 2.3. This selection depends on the quality of the metadata and on the consistency of urban delineations. In particular, we have excluded the databases elaborated through a bottom-up approach as seen in Figure 2.2, for which definitions, sources and process may vary between countries (like LUZ from Urban audit 2004) and we have given priority to top-down approaches that rely on homogeneous specifications on the whole area.

Figure 2.2. Two different approaches of European urban DB construction: bottom-up and top-down

Two different approaches of European urban DB construction: bottom-up and top-down

source: H. Mathian, 2012


Figure 2.3. Main characteristics of the four urban databases integrated into the ESPON Database

Main characteristics of the four urban databases integrated into the ESPON Database

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


Figure 2.4. Urban Database, geometries and attributes

Urban Database, geometries and attributes

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


2.2. Morphological objects

In ESPON DB, cities can first be described as morphological agglomerations characterized by high density and/or by contiguous urban fabric. Although this approach is not the best-suited to capture a city as a "system of relationships" and to follow the urban sprawl process, cities as urban agglomerations still remain very useful and complementary to Fynctionnal Urban Areas (FUA). They are especially relevant when analyzing the planning of infrastructure systems, the provision and coordination of local and the study of land-use patterns. They also enable apprehension of the urban hierarchy as a whole and not only for the largest cities, as there is no FUA delineation for smaller citis.

Three european databases result from this conceptual approach of cities as morphological objects and can be consulted in the ESPON platform; the Urban Morphological Zones (UMZ) from the Environmental Agency, the Morphological Urban Areas (MUA) which are the core of the Functional Urban Areas from IGEAT, and the Cities which are part of the Larger Urban Zones from Eurostat/OECD/urban audit >JRC. They all result from a similar top-down process, but each of them follows different criteria and construction rules, that are summed up in Figure 2.5 and presented in the following sections".

Figure 2.5. Comparison of specifications for three morphological urban areas (urban cores)

Comparison of specifications for three morphological urban areas (urban cores)

source: H. Mathian, A. Pavard, 2012


2.2.1. UMZ (Urban Morphological Zones)

The UrbanMorphological Zones (UMZ) database was created by the European Environment Agecny (EEA) in 2002. The EEA used the CORINE Land Cover database and quite automatic methods for delineating these agglomerations. The main criterion used is a maximal distance one. UMZ are composed by continously built-up areas, with a maximum spacing of 200m. These are relate to several modes of Land Cover in the CORINE nomenclature: the category "urban fabric" (continuous or discontinuous), but also "industrial commercial units", "green urabn areas", certain forest spaces, port areas; airports, sports and leisure facilities, and road and rail networks (for more details about the construction rules, see Milego 2007).

In the ESPON Database portal, four types of modifications were brought to the matest version of UMZ that can be downloaded on EEA website (F3v0), in order to make them more operational for urban studies:

  • A name was associated to each UMZ, in order to create a semantic link between these morphological patches and the territory. This step was processed by using an automated method and an expert assessment (Bretagnolle et al., 2010). It has also allowed validating the relevance of UMZ database as compared to national agglomeration databases (Guerois et al., 2012).

  • A selection of over 10000 inhabitants was decided, in order to be able to study small and medium sized cities.

  • Thepopulation of each UMZ in 2000 (year of reference) was added by using the last version (v.5) of the population density grid constructed by the European Commission research centre (Gallego, 2010).

  • UMZ delineations can also be adjusted to LAU2 geometry by the means of a UMZ-LAU2 dictionary. The method used for developing such a dictionary is explained in the First Interim Report online (M4D_FIR_revised) and a Technical report is planned for December 2013.

The UMZ database that is available in the ESPON DB thus comprises about 4300 cities covering 29 countries (EU28 and Liechtenstein).

The following spreadsheet contains the complete description of the UMZ classification: nomenclature.xls. Composed of about 4304 units over the ESPON area, a map representing this nomenclature is shown in Figure 2.6.

[Note]

For the needs of the study area filters of the ESPON Database Portal Search Query interface, an additional sheet has been added to the UMZ nomenclature definition xls file: study_area. This sheet proposes two columns in order to associate each territorial unit of the nomenclature to the country code it belongs to. Most of the territorial units belong to EU28 or EU28+4 (e.g. EU28 + Iceland + Liechtenstein + Norway + Switzerland) or EU28+4+CC (EU28+4 + Candidate Countries) study areas. Please take into account two particular cases regarding these associations:

  • The territorial unit Monaco Menton Beausoleil (code: 99990) has been attached to France.

  • The territorial unit San Marino (code: 98561) has been attached to Italy.

Figure 2.6. UMZ Study Area Coverage Map

UMZ Study Area Coverage Map

This screenshot shows the area covered by the territorial units in the UMZ nomenclature (superposition of the UMZ geometries over the ESPON Area Narrow mapkit layer).


2.2.2. MUA (Morphologic Urban Areas)

The MUA (Morphologic Urban Areas) database has been created in 2007 and updated in 2011 by IGEAT (Institut de Gestion de l'Environnement et d'Aménagement du Territoire, Unversité Libre de Bruxelles) in order to associate morphological cores to the FUA_Igeat (Functional Urban Areas) database. The delineation of MUA for the year of reference 2001 is mainly based on the selection of the most densely populated municipalities, along with some secondary rules:

  • The main rule depends on minimal density criterion. Specifically, it is based on the selection of municipalities (LAU2) whose popultion density is over 650 inhab./km2. A MUA is composed by a municipalities of high density, "as well as the municipalities not reaching the threshold but enclosed by the others" (IGEAT et al., 2007).

  • A second rule lies on a minimal population criterion (20 000 inhabitants). It is especially used to select municipalities characterized by a "true urban character", but that "are not reaching the level of 650 inhab./km2, due to some specificities of the delimitation of the municipality" (for instance a very large municipal territory) (IGEAT et al. 2007). All the municiplaities over 20 000 inhabitants are thus also considered as MUA "whenever they have a clear concentrated morphological core". Only the MUA characterized by high densities and population over 20000 inhabitants can be considered as urban cores of FUA.

  • In some large conurbations, contiguous LAU2 of high density were split into several MUA when different nodes could be clearly distinguished from a morphological point of view.

  • As regards to MUA population, some gaps still remain and some results for the smallest MUA should be interpreted with caution.

The MUA database comprises about 2000 citiesthroughout 29 countries (EU27 (1 January 2007 - 30 June 2013) plus Norway and Switzerland).

The following spreadsheet contains the complete description of the MUA classification: nomenclature.xls. A map representing the covered area of this nomenclature is shown in Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7. MUA Study Area Coverage Map

MUA Study Area Coverage Map

This screenshot shows the area covered by the territorial units in the MUA nomenclature (superposition of the UMZ geometries over the ESPON Area Narrow mapkit layer).


2.2.3. Comparison between UMZ and MUA

Figure 2.8. Comparison between the 50 most populated MUA and the corresponding UMZ

Comparison between the 50 most populated MUA and the corresponding UMZ

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


2.3. Funtional objects

Figure 2.9. Comparison of specifications for two functional approaches of cities

Comparison of specifications for two functional approaches of cities

source: H. Mathian, A. Pavard, may 2012


2.3.1. FUA_Igeat

The Functional Urban Areas defined by IGEAT (FUA_Igeat) are based on the analysis of commuting patterns towards morphological urban cores in 2000 (Peeters, 2011):

  • The urban cores correspond to all the MUA over 20 000 inhabitants (see section MUA).

  • The exterior ring of a FUA is constructed by selecting the municipalities (LAU2) where more than 10% of the economically active population works in MUA/urban cores. Each municipality can only be associated to one MUA. As a consequence, if one of these municipalities depends on several MUA, it is linked to the MUA which registers the highest commuting rate. In case of equality in commuting rates, it is linked to the most populated MUA.

  • In general, each FUA is structured around one MUA, except in few cases: if two MUA send to each other important commuting flows (unspecified level), they are aggregated into the same FUA.

  • The exterior ring of a FUA is a group of touching municipalities, without "holes". If the exterior ring of the FUA is fragmented into several parts, especially on its outskirts, only the main and largest part is kept, except in the case where fragmentation is caused by geographical specifities (like islands, for instance). If some municipalities are enclosed by other municipalities belonging to the exterior ring of a FUA, they are attributed to the same FUA, so that the holes are filled.

This database contains 1530 urban objects that cover 29 countries (EU27 (1 January 2007 - 30 June 2013) plus Norway and Switzerland). The majority of the issues raised by this database are described by D. Peeters (2011) the main issues are related to missing data (no comuters data provided for Poland or Romania, no transnational commuters data in general) or to inconsistencies (errors in active population data in Germany). Furthermore, the population data provided for the smallest FUA has to be interpreted with caution.

The following spreadsheet contains the complete description of the FUA classification: nomenclature.xls.

Figure 2.10. FUA_Igeat delineations (2012)

FUA_Igeat delineations (2012)

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


2.3.2. LUZ harmonized

The Larger Urban Zones harmonized correspond to the new definition of cities for the latest Urban Audit and were created by the consortium Eurostat, Urban Audit and OECD (Djikstra, Poelman, 2012). In the 2012 version (reference year 2006), this definition is based on the construction of a commuting zone around a core city:

  • The urban core (city) lies on two criteria: a minimal desity threshold ans a minimal population threshold. It is defined through three main steps: (1) High density population area is first identified by selecting grid cell over 1500 inh./km2 and by aggregating contiguous high-density cells; (2) Only the clusters larger than 50 000 inhabitants are retained as urban cores ; (3) Those cores are adjusted to LAU2 delineations: all the LAU2 with at least 50% of their population inside the urban core are retained and form the urban core.

  • The commuting zone around this urban core is identified by using commuting patterns: it is composed by all the LAU2 where more than 15% of their employed resident population work in the urban core. Then, all the LAU2 which are enclosed within this functional area are included and all the non-contiguous LAU2 are dropped.

In the version that should be soon available on the OECD web site, the database contains 695 urban objects that cover 31 countries (EU28 plus Norway, Switzerland and Iceland).

In the previous version of LUZ produced by the Urban audit (LUZ 2004), the LUZ deineation was based on the collection of national delineations depending on different conceptual approaches of cities and different sources (Bretagnolle et al., 2011). Only 12 countries had LUZ definitions based on commuters (with various minimal commuting thresholds). The new database should ensure better harmonized results. For the time being, the LUZ harmonized protocol has been adopted by 16 countries and 4 other countries have preferred other definitions based on commuters.

Figure 2.11. LUZ harmonized delineations (2012)

LUZ harmonized delineations (2012)

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


2.3.3. Comparison between FUA_Igeat and LUZ harmonized

Figure 2.12. Comparison between the 50 most populated FUA_Igeat and corresponding LUZ harmonized

Comparison between the 50 most populated FUA_Igeat and corresponding LUZ harmonized

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


2.4. Other objects

2.4.1. MetroRegions

The MetroRegions result from an urban nomenclature created by the ESPON SGPTD Project.

There are 153 MetroRegions. They are constructed from the boundaries of the LUZ harmonized (OECD/DG Regio 2012). If 50% of the population of a NUTS3 is in a LUZ, then NUTS3 is selected to form the MetroRegion.

As MetroRegions are not exactly urban objects, the database is only available in a .zip file and cannot be directly queried in ESPON DB.

For more information please refer to the documentation produced by the research team: ESPON SGPTD homepage.

Figure 2.13. MetroRegionsdelineations (2012)

MetroRegionsdelineations (2012)

source: UMR Géographie-cités, 2013


Chapter 3. World nomenclatures

3.1. WUTS - World Unified Territorial System

[Caution]

Work in progress

3.1.1. Source reference and methodology

All elements mentioned in this section derived from results provided by the ESPON 3.4.1 Project ([4])

Realised in the first ESPON programme, this Europe in the World database in based on a precise list of 168 states that represents a minimum of 1/10’000th of the population, GDP or area of the World. This list of 168 states provides a clear basis for data collection in an harmonised way, all states being identified by a specific code (WUTS CODE). The WUTS (World Unified Territorial System) is a harmonised hierarchical system of World divisions, which is directly inspired from the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) created by Eurostat more than 25 years ago in order to provide a single uniform breakdown of territorial units for the production of regional statistics for the European Union. The WUTS is composed of 5 hierarchical levels, from the level of states (WUTS5) to the level of the World (WUTS0).

Regarding the study area, this nomenclature is adapted both for a global view (study area: World) but also for analysing European Neighbourhood dynamics (study area: European Neighborhood)

However, it is important to remind that the WUTS nomenclature has been produced in 2006. Consequently, some countries which have experimented a territorial division (Serbia/Montenegro; South and North Sudan) are aggregated in the WUTS nomenclature

3.1.1.1. WUTS1 - The World in 3 global regions

The level WUTS1 proposes a division of the World into three “Global Regions” clearly based on the economic model of the Triad. At this level, the ESPON 3.4.1 project assumed a vision of the World which is based on the classical “Centre-Periphery” model and where the delimitations are mainly based on economic criteria like trade flows or Foreign Direct Investment flows.

  • Euro-Africa (W1)is the part of the World which is mainly polarised by Western Europe in economic terms and also in terms of accessibility. The preliminary results of project EIW produced in the context of ESPON 3.1 demonstrate clearly that in terms of trade flows (1996-2000) and in terms of air flows (2000), we can see that the influence area of Europe covers a wide area from Vladivostok (Russia) to Cape Town (Southern Africa).

  • The Americas (W2) is the part of the World economically and politically dominated by the influence of United States or which, at least, is considered as such with the imposition of the “Monroe doctrine” (1823) and particularly by the end of the 19th century, by which time the United States became able to effectively enforce it.

  • Asia-Pacifica (W3) is the remaining part of the World which cannot be considered as polarised by one centre but rather by an oligopoly of developed (Japan, Australia, Southern Korea) and developing (China, India) countries. This area fits with the new delimitation of ASEAN which is now actually enlarging towards India.

This division of the World into global regions is certainly not perfect and can be further improved. But it has the great statistical advantage of proposing a simple view of the World into three main areas of equivalent economic size, each representing more or less one third of the World’s GDP and of the World’s emissions of Carbon Dioxide at the beginning of the 21st century. Differences are more important in geographical terms (larger area of Eurasia) or in demographic terms (larger population of Asia-Pacifica) but it is certainly the best compromise that can be achieved at this scale. An interesting characteristic of Euro-Africa is its significant political divisions (113 states) as compared to the Americas (29 states) and Asia-Pacifica (26 states).

3.1.1.2. WUTS2 - The World in 7 macro regions

The WUTS2 level proposes a division of the World into 7 macro regions which displays more homogeneous areas inside each of the previous global regions. The level of economic development is a major criteria for this second level of division (division of Asia-Pacifica in two parts) but other criteria are also taken into account such as language (Latin America), common history (Europe and Northern Asia, Southern Mediterranean and eastern Asia) or integration zone (Northern America). As it is impossible to combine all criteria without producing a multiplication of regions, the results must necessarily be seen as a compromise where many choices could be further discussed by the ESPON Monitoring Committee and improved by future researches developed in ESPON II.

Concerning the division of the global region of Euro-Africa (W1) into 3 macro regions, we took into account the results of the survey on the “Weltanschauung of the ESPON community” when we established the limits of “Europe and Northern Asia” (W11) reflecting that which is commonly accepted by the majority of ESPON members in their subjective delimitation of Europe. Russia and Turkey were involved in this macro region because, historically, they have, perhaps since the Middle Ages, been strongly linked with the dynamic of European development. The elaboration of a specific area for Sub-Saharan Africa (W13) appears obvious according to all demographic, social and economic criteria. While the creation of a specific area for Western Asia and Northern Africa (W12) appeared rather more as a default choice than as an attempt to isolate a so-called ‘cultural area’, based on religious criteria like the “greater Middle East” in the United States. In the opinion of the EIW Project, the identity of this area is not only cultural but also demographic, economic and social with intermediate levels between Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa.

In terms of size at World scale, the 7 macro regions are relatively equal in terms of their surface area (more or less 10-20% of the World for each) which is interesting for cartographic reasons alone. They are however very different in terms of all other economic and demographic criteria. Once more then, we note the extraordinary political fragmentation of the macro regions located in Europe and its neighbourhood as compared to those of the rest of the World.

3.1.1.3. WUTS3 - The World in 17 meso regions

The WUTS3 level proposes a division of the World into 17 meso regions similar to the division elaborated in the preliminary study on EIW developed in the context of project ESPON 3.1. But it is partly modified in order to take into account the constraints of hierarchy (compatibility with WUTS1 and WUTS2) and in accordance with the advice of the experts embedded in project ESPON 3.4.1. This meso-regions level is crucial for statistical and cartographic analysis, especially in the case of flows where the previous WUTS1 and WUTS2 levels are too general and where the national level (WUTS5) is not relevant because of the heterogeneity of the economic and demographic sizes of states. The EIW Project started typically from the largest states of the World (USA, China, and India, ) in order to build an equivalent aggregate based on groups of states which are strongly related (European Union) or which are sufficiently homogeneous to keep the maximum aggregation in the aggregation procedure.

An important criterion here was the choice of aggregates, which could be relevant for the elaboration of European policy recommendations or for the development of strategic plans. The Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (W121) is typically a region which makes sense from a European point of view as it is related to the Barcelona process. Concerning East- Central Europe and the Balkans, a difficult choice was face in relation to the decision to split this area between the new Member States, Russia, Turkey and Balkans, at this level or to wait for the next level (WUTS4). The EIW Project decided, ultimately, to let this aggregate as a whole at the WUTS3 level in order to make comparisons between Eastern Europe and SE Mediterranean region easier.

3.1.1.4. WUTS4 - The ESPON space and its surrounding areas in 12 Micro Regions

The WUTS4 level was elaborated only for the purposes of analysing in more detail the ESPON space in its wider geopolitical and socio-economic context and, more generally, in the context of what we termed the global region of EuroAfrica (W1). In the other parts of the World, this level is not particularly interesting because it is smaller than the size of the largest states and could not be properly realised without the desegregation of the largest countries (the USA, China, India, and Brazil) which is actually impossible, or at least very expensive, and of minimal interest for the ESPON Programme. Micro-regions are particularly useful for the analysis of this wider ESPON space because they introduce internal divisions both in the ESPON area and in its northern and southern peripheries. In terms of migrations, for example, it is interesting to distinguish two aspects: the various origins (Maghreb, Mashreq, the Balkans, and Central Asia) and the various destinations (Northern Europe, West Central Europe, and Southern Europe) and to establish matrixes at this level which is more homogeneous than the level of states. More generally, it is interesting to produce statistical tables where the reference is not the World but the wider ESPON space or the wider area of European ‘influence’ defined at the level of WUTS1 by the region of Euro-Africa (W1).

3.1.1.5. Methodological notes for some country aggregation

Please find in Table 3.1 a list of the aggregations made for some countries of the WUTS Nomenclature [1].
Table 3.1. 

Aggregations in WUTS Nomenclature

Country Comment
China China (mainland) + Macao + Hong Kong
France France (mainland) + Guadeloupe + Martinique + Reunion + Guyane
Israel Without occupied Palestinian territories.
Morocco Without Western Sahara.

3.1.2. WUTS Maps

Figure 3.1. WUTS Classification

WUTS Classification

These maps have been produced within the ESPON Europe in the World project and show the WUTS1, 2, 3 and 4 levels. Taking into account that the WUTS0 level corresponds to the whole World and the level 5 to the country level (168 territorial units).


3.1.3. The Euromed study area

Limiting the research conducted in the ESPON programme to a focus on the EU29 is potentially to generate a number of serious theoretical and practical mistakes and omissions in the analysis of the main trends shaping the European territory. The strategic vision of the ESPON area must therefore be broader. The EIW Project therefore build a Euro-Mediterranean template widening the vision of ESPON, based on the analyses conducted in the project and showing the importance of the Southern and Eastern neighbours for ESPON. The projection used to build the map template is centred on ESPON and is enlarged to the South by the North African countries, to the East by the Balkan countries plus Turkey, Russia, the countries of the Caucuses and finally by those of Central Asia. This pan-European view should be taken into account by European policymakers when elaborating long-term strategies for the European Union. In addition, a WUTS4 level regionalisation has been elaborated for this new template for the purpose of analysing in more detail the functional European neighbourhood. Micro-regions are particularly useful for the analysis of this functional neighbourhood because they introduce internal divisions both within the ESPON area and in its northern and Southern peripheries.

3.1.4. Download the complete WUTS Nomenclature

[Caution]

no wuts nomenclature package zip file available...

This .xls file contain all the territorial units and hierarchies for the WUTS Nomenclature. [1].

Chapter 4. Concluding remarks

Figure 4.1. Good practices for managing ESPON Nomenclatures within a project

Good practices for managing ESPON Nomenclatures within a project

It is important to know what kind of nomenclatures are accepted by the ESPON Database Portal (key indicators). If a nomenclature you are looking for still not exist, different solutions can be explored.


As defined in the How to Deliver my data? ([12]) document and described in the figure above, it is very important to raise some basic questions related to data collection/harmonisation at the very beginning of each ESPON Project. The question of the nomenclature and the study area to choose is one of them, and namely:

  • What is the geographical extent of my project? Does it cover the entire ESPON Space or only case-study?

  • What is the geographical object I am interested in for developing my analysis? Regional data (NUTS)? City data (FUA, MUA, UMZ)? World data (WUTS)?

When the "target" nomenclatures and study areas are defined, two cases of figure can appear:

a) The target nomenclature is described in the sections above. In this case, the best procedure consists by downloading the full nomenclature from this document, copy/paste all the territorial units in the template available under the upload part of the ESPON Database Portal (sheet data) to be sure to forget no territorial units. We remind that one of the requirement of the Key indicator delivery is to have few missing values. Please have a look into the introduction to see how to declare correctly a nomenclature.

b) The target nomenclature is not available. Three possibilities are offered to the project:

  • Case-study data: it is not the aim of the Search Interface of the ESPON Database Portal to store every nomenclature. The data stored under the Search interface of the ESPON Database covers at least the entire ESPON Space. For case-study data, it is not asked to declare a nomenclature in the ESPON Metadata, but just declare what are the geographical objects of reference and if possible/adapted to provide the geometries. We remind that this kind of delivery must be delivered under the Case-Study part of the upload part of the ESPON Database Portal. Look at the How to Deliver my Data documentationfor further explanations.

  • Complex nomenclatures: if you want to deliver data in nomenclatures with a lot of territorial units/objects (e.g. LAU2, grids), the ESPON Database Portal is not yet adapted for that purpose since it needs further explorations in the computer point of view (not asked to the M4D Project). For this kind of delivery, the ESPON M4D project suggests to provide these data files in a .zip format and upload them under the background part of the upload part of the ESPON Database Portl. Please have a look at the How to Delivery my Data document for further explanations.

  • An alternative nomenclature (not available in this documentation) could be considered by the M4D Project: four required elements are asked for adding a new nomenclature into the ESPON Database Portal. First, this new nomenclature must cover at least the entire ESPON Space (EU28+4). Secondly, it contains less than 3000 geographical objects (for performance issues). Thirdly, this nomenclature can be updated further by new data OUT of your project. Fourthly, the geometries related to this new nomenclature is free of use (it is possible to share them). If all these conditions are filled, please contact the ESPON M4D Manager (manager@espondb.eu) to be informed on the requested elements for adding a new nomenclature to the ESPON Database Portal.

Appendix A. References

Table of Contents

[1] ESPON 3.4.1 Project, Europe in the World (2006). ESPON 3.4.1 Homepage .

[2] Anton Telechev and Benoit Le Rubrus. ESPON Nomenclatures Support. Preparation of a Statistical Units Nomenclature for Integration into ESPON Database. ESPON Database Portal .

[3] eurostat EUROPEAN COMMISSION. History of NUTS. Histoty of NUTS (last visit: 2012-12-18) .

[4] eurostat EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Regions. Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics NUTS May 1999. Full text in PDF (last visit: 2012-12-18) .

[5] eurostat EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Regions. Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics NUTS 2003/EU-25. Publication (last visit: 2012-12-18) .

[6] eurostat EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Regions in the European Union. Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics NUTS 2006/EU-27. Publication (last visit: 2012-12-18) .

[7] Official Journal of the European Union. COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 31/2011 of 17 January 2011. Amending annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS). Publication (last visit: 2012-12-18) .

[8] European Communities, 2001. Statistical regions in the EFTA countries and the candidate countries. Publication (last visit: 2012-12-18) . 92-894-2092-8.

[9] Eurostat. Statistical regions for the EFTA countries and the Candidate countries 2008. Publication (last visit: 2012-12-18) . 1977-0375.

[10] Eurostat. NUTS 2010 - NUTS 2013 (Excel file). Publication (last visit: 2014-07-18) .

[11] Dao Hy, De Bono Andrea, Grasland Claude, Lambert Nicolas, Ysebaert Ronan. World Database, global data for the ESPON 2013 Database, ESPON Database Project, technical report.. ESPON Database, technical report part. .

[12] Ronan Ysebaert, Isabelle Salmon, and Benoit Le Rubrus. How to deliver my data?. ESPON Database Portal .

[13] Roger Milego. Urban Morphological Zones, Definition and procedural steps. Final Report, Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, ETC Terrestrial Environment (2007). EEA .

[14] Anne Bretagnolle, Timothee Giraud, Marianne Guerois, and Helene Mathian. Naming UMZ: methods and results. Technical Report, ESPON 2013 Database (2010). ESPON Database Portal, technical report part .

[15] F.J. Gallego. A population density grid of the European Union. Population and Environment, vol.31, n°6, pp.460-473 (2010).

[16] Marianne Guerois, Anne Bretagnolle, Timothee Giraud, and Helene Mathian. A new database for the cities of Europe? Urban Morphological Zones (CLC2000) confronted to three national databases of urban agglomerations (Denmark, Sweden and France). Environment and Planning B, vol.39 (3), pp.439-458 (2012).

[17] IGEAT, IGSO, LATTS, and TSAC. Study on urban functions. ESPON Project 1.4.3, final report. ESPON website, Project 1.4.3, final report .

[18] Didier Peeters. The Functional Urban Areas database. Technical Report, ESPON 2013 Database (2011). ESPON website, technical report part .

[19] Lewis Djikstra and Hugo Poelman. Cities in Europe, the new OECD-EC definition. Regional focus 01/2012, European Commission (2012).

[20] Anne Bretagnolle, F. Delisle, and Helene Mathian. Larger Urban Zones (Urban Audit) specifications. Technical Report, ESPON 2013 Database (2011). ESPON website, technical report part .

Appendix B. About

This document is part of the ESPON 2013 Database Phase 2 project, also known as M4D (Multi Dimension Database Design and Development). It was generated on the 2014-12-19 17:34:30, from the sources of the m4d forge imag project at the svn rev 2420.

This document has been written by UMS RIATE and UMR Géographie-cités M4D partners (with the help of LIG STeamer).

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Colophon

Based on DocBook technology [1], this document is written in XML format, sources are validated with DocBook DTD 4.5CR3, then sources are transformed to HTML and PDF formats by using DocBook xslt 1.73.2 stylesheets. The generation of the documents is automatized thanks to the docbench LIG STeamer project that is based on Ant [2], java [3], processors Xalan[4] and FOP [5]. Note that Xslt standard stylesheets are customized in order to get a better image resolution in PDF generated output for admonitions icons: the generated sizes of these icons were turned from 30 to 12 pt.



[1] [on line] DocBook.org (last visit: July 2011)

[2] [on line] Apache Ant - Welcome. Version 1.7.1 (last visit: July 2011)

[3] [on line] Developer Resources For Java Technology (last visit: July 2011). Version 1.6.0_03-b05.

[4] [on line] Xalan-Java Version 2.7.1 (last visit: 18 november 2009). Version 2.7.1.

[5] [on line] Apache FOP (last visit: July 2011). Version 0.94.