The border-effect index shows the region's dependence on international relations. For our border-effect analysis, we abandoned the basket approach. The reasons are as follows: (1) a country’s size and the number and density of its NUTS 2 regions have a decisive impact on the indicator, which distorts its universality and comparability for the entire ESPON space at the basket level; (2) for Erasmus student flows, intra-country flows do not exist, so our analysis looks at only two knowledge flows (H2020 and patents).
The obvious conclusion from the analysis is that small countries are more dependent on foreign flows than large countries. Moreover, border regions are usually subject to a greater exchange of international flows than central regions, the most remote from the border. Thus, it is particularly interesting to compare large countries in the ESPON space.
In the case of trade in goods and services, certain capitals and other large cities are clearly dominant. They are more dependent on international flows (compared with other units in their own countries). Such is the case of Madrid, Warsaw, Prague, and Vilnius. The same pattern is not so visible in goods transport, where the dominance of internal traffic is (especially in Poland and Spain) common. In the case of services, northern France is characterized by high internationalization, whereas in Germany, Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom flows related to services show a much greater concentration in internal flows.
Theme(s): Economy, finance and trade - Population and living conditions - Population and Living Conditions