The border-effect index shows the region's dependence on international relations. For our border-effect analysis, we abandoned the basket approach. The reasons are as follows: (1) a country’s size and the number and density of its NUTS 2 regions have a decisive impact on the indicator, which distorts its universality and comparability for the entire ESPON space at the basket level; (2) for Erasmus student flows, intra-country flows do not exist, so our analysis looks at only two knowledge flows (H2020 and patents).
The obvious conclusion from the analysis is that small countries are more dependent on foreign flows than large countries. Moreover, border regions are usually subject to a greater exchange of international flows than central regions, the most remote from the border. Thus, it is particularly interesting to compare large countries in the ESPON space.
There are countries in the ESPON space where the share of internal migrations is particularly high. These are Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries, but also Greece and partly Hungary, Czechia, and the Netherlands. On the other hand, international migrations dominate in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovakia, Portugal, and the Baltic states, and also (although in this case, it is more receivers than senders) in Switzerland, Ireland, and Iceland. In addition, in some countries, there are large internal differences between regions. In Spain, for example, Extremadura has an especially high share of internal migrations, while Catalonia and Valencia are regions strongly focused on international migration. In several countries, internal migration patterns are visible, disrupting the dominance of foreign migration. This is particularly the case in Poland and Romania. The local metropolises of Warsaw and Bucharest are alternatives to foreign destinations. In Western European countries the situation is the opposite. Metropolises are characterised by a higher share of international migration, which results from the mobility of highly skilled workers. This is the case in Paris, Madrid, Berlin, and Stockholm.
Theme(s): Economy, finance and trade - Population and living conditions - Population and Living Conditions